Reese's Peanut Butter Calories, Redmi Airdots Left Not Turning On, Brigham Ob Anesthesia Fellowship, Soggy Apple Strudel, Millennium L360 Ladder Stand, Clean And Clear Deep Cleansing Lotion, Aws Convert Mbr To Gpt, Tornadoes Of 1985, Lion House Layered Salad, Machine Design Notes Pdf, " /> Reese's Peanut Butter Calories, Redmi Airdots Left Not Turning On, Brigham Ob Anesthesia Fellowship, Soggy Apple Strudel, Millennium L360 Ladder Stand, Clean And Clear Deep Cleansing Lotion, Aws Convert Mbr To Gpt, Tornadoes Of 1985, Lion House Layered Salad, Machine Design Notes Pdf, " />
Fire Retardant
Deluxe Red Door Panel
March 29, 2020

tornadoes of 1985

FROM 500 PM EDT UNTIL 1100 PM THIS FRIDAY AFTERNOON AND EVENING. Note the 50Kt ‘flag’ at Buffalo, NY. Gregg did extensive aerial photography of the 1985 tornado event. The following sounding is from Dayton, Ohio (DAY) the morning of the 31st. Multiple locations were found. I said to my boss "you never know what's going to happen when it gets like this." We'd love to hear it! We lifted off and the tornado’s path of destruction was easy to follow from the air. State College, PA328 Innovation Blvd, Suite 330State College, PA 16803(814)954-6440Comments? Click on a tornado name in the table below to view more details about each tornado. Dr. Greg Forbes (then Penn State faculty and my thesis advisor; now Severe Weather Expert for The Weather Channel) was operating the radar and calling in observations to the National Weather Service in Pittsburgh. This was my first severe weather shift as a lead forecaster. The same supercell dropped another tornado right across the state line in Pennsylvania 15 minutes later and killed 9 people in Big Beaver, Pennsylvania. The rain and wind continued for another 45 minutes to one hour. "If I'm going to die, I'm not going to die alone," I said to myself, and off I ran to my neighbor's home. Local Climate Page Unfortunately, the tornadoes that hit Warren, Forest and Venango Counties on that fateful night thirty years ago were very destructive in terms of property and life. A devastating outbreak of tornados on May 31, 1985 spanned several states, and hit Pennsylvania particularly hard. I got much of my information from the disc jockeys themselves before they put me on the air. He flipped on the scanner and I was listening to it also and hearing him pace back and forth. Counties:  Lincoln Radar images don’t show the actual tornadoes themselves (see the videos in the next section for that), but instead show structures or signatures within the storms that produce tornadoes. We knew we had winds backing with height from southeast to southwest aloft and increasing with height. Injuries: F-scale:  F2 I can only image the forecasters that surveyed the tornado damage from the May 31st, 1985 outbreak felt the same as I did when they viewed the destruction. On the evening of May 31st, 1985, a devastating and deadly tornado outbreak struck the Northeastern United States and Canada. I remember waking up to the thunder and looking out the window. Twenty-one tornadoes tracked across Northeast Ohio and Northwest Pennsylvania during the evening of May 31st. The F4 tornado that went through Albion in southeast Erie County first touched down just west of the PA-OH border at 2059z (4:59 PM). I was especially saddened to find out that our favorite ice cream stand in Tidioute PA had been destroyed by the tornado that passed through that lovely little town. Another measure of instability is the Lifted Index (LI). ...to along the middle Atlantic Coast then westward through North Carolina by Saturday morning June 1st. The first hour or so of the shift was comparatively quiet; it took awhile before the first damage and injury/death reports made their way through the teletype circuits (the teletype or "Comms" room through which SELS received most damage reports at the time would close later the same year). I attended PSU for a B.S. One side story, there was an unusual challenge for us on the Campus Weather Service team that night. It just felt unusual to me that day, so much so that I actually noticed it while we were playing catch. National Weather Service FOR LATER STATEMENTS AND POSSIBLE WARNINGS. The thunderstorms were supported by a cold front moving east across the northeastern U.S. ahead of a low pressure system moving northeastward through the Great Lakes region. in meteorology from 1992-1996, and in the summer of 1995, worked at the National Severe Storms Lab and participated in the VORTEX project--at the time, the biggest tornado field project ever. May 15, 1985 Times: 1556 - 1701 CST Touchdown location: 31.032169, -97.501932 Highest winds: 215 MPH - 346 KMH Injuries: 420 Fatalities: 69 Damage: $527 million (2020 USD) - $218 million (1985 USD) Areas affected: Bell County, TX Part of the {{{tornado season}}} B…TORNADOES…LARGE HAIL…DANGEROUS LIGHTNING AND DAMAGING THUNDERSTORM WINDS ARE POSSIBLE IN THESE AREAS. Somewhere between logging the onslaught of storm reports, helping issue the new watches, and answer phone calls, we managed to manually analyze the evening's upper air charts --- a first-order task given that the analyses served, along with hourly surface charts, as the primary source of information in the watch decision process. Notes:  Storm Data begins this tornado on the west side of Simpsonville. I was born on the west side of Cleveland, Ohio and on vacations, my grandfather liked to take us on driving trips to his favorite fishing holes in NW Pennsylvania. One of the strongest storms of the night moved across Clarion and Jefferson Counties. THE TORNADO WATCH IS ALONG AND 70 STATUTE MILES SOUTHWEST OF AKRON OHIO TO 20 MILES SOUTH OF ROCHESTER NEW YORK. Noted discrepancies:  SPC and NCDC list a path width of 17 yards, Grazulis lists 20 yards, Storm Data says 33 yards. Twenty-one tornadoes tracked across Northeast Ohio and Northwest Pennsylvania during the evening of May 31st. Please Contact Us. Climate Graphs April 5, 1985 I have worked for the National Weather Service for 15 years now and still love the power of the atmosphere and probably always will! Many of us have wondered if the Moshannon tornado reached F5 strength at some point, but it moved only through unpopulated areas (fortunately), so no evidence of F5 damage was found. Tornado Season Tornado season is a term used only as a guide for when most tornadoes occur in an area. The next day I was at work at WNEP-TV when a viewer called thinking a tornado had crossed his property. I drew on that experience numerous times in the decades ahead, mostly in storm-prone central Illinois. Please select one of the following: Experimental Graphical Hazardous Weather Outlook, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Even though my immediate area wasn't impacted by a tornado, the power of those storms as they moved through really peaked my interest in weather. Noted discrepancies:  None, Current Hazards Path length:  1 miles I have never seen a sounding in Pittsburgh look so bad. June 7, 1985 Precipitation looks like a hook on the radar returns; showing rain, hail and sometimes debris caused by the tornado, spiraling inward around the tornado circulation. The cold front moving east provided the lift as it pushed into the warm sector and the dewpoints into the 70s show the available moisture. By about 6 p.m., however, it was pretty clear that a terrible event was unfolding before us. Each rapidly moving storm laid down a significant outflow boundary and resulted in new cell formation further to the south of the previous storms. Later in the day I drove to as many areas as I could to see the destruction first hand and to meet with people and offer comfort and assure them that the state would do all it could to assist them. Everybody should take cover! Thirty-four years ago, 41 tornadoes ripped a deadly path through Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York and Ontario, Canada on May 31, 1985.The twisters left 88 people dead, including 65 in … Please try another search. It's been a heck of a ride. On a personal note, my family had some connections to the affected area. The conversation in our little church that following Sunday centered around the disaster. Although we had access to single-site reflectivity data from some locations, there were no regional mosaiced products for us to "see the big picture." The threat of severe weather was so great that we had actually headlined the possibility in the zone forecasts at 4 AM on the previous midnight shift. Jefferson County also indicated no reports of severe weather until golf ball sized hail was reported in Brookville as the storm rapidly exited Jefferson County and moved into southern Elk County about 7:20 PM. The Dec. 5, 1975, tornado damaged or destroyed about 250 homes and apartments, including some near 21st Street and 129th East Avenue. After 8 PM, the outflow from the Big Beaver storm initiated a new storm that produced an F1 short track tornado in East Sparta, OH just west of the Pittsburgh WSR-57 radar. My mother took me and my brother to the library regularly during the summer. This was the first time I'd ever heard/seen the term "tornado watch," and I distinctly recall asking my parents what it meant (I think they gave a decent answer, though some of the details now escape me). Carolyn issued the Moderate Risk outlook on the midnight shift the morning of May 31st. I called the Pennsylvania State Police and they gave me an update on the damage that the tornadoes had caused in our area. Injuries: About then the bell started ringing in the teletype room as each new tornado warning was issued. I remember remarking that this is the same forecast problem they have in Oklahoma. PSU Department of Meteorology colloquium presentation; February 25, 2015. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. At first all the action was in Ontario. Year. The Ohio-Pennsylvania Tornadoes of May 31, 1985. We also were concerned for the Williamsport area. We flew over Kane which was directly hit. Path width: We’re aware that these uncertain times are limiting many aspects of life as we all practice social and physical distancing. Based on the 00Z LFM run, I, along with SELS Lead Forecaster Larry Wilson, decided that if thunderstorms did develop, that they would go strongly severe across the area...hence the Moderate Risk. We heard on the radio and television that there were tornado warnings for all of northwestern Pennsylvania as tornadoes were spotted in several areas moving from the west toward the east. We understood at the time that supercell storms behaved differently from ordinary cells. I can still remember the feelings that I had upon seeing the damage and total destruction that occurred with that event. To purchase a high-resolution print of any listed photograph on this page without the visible watermark, E-Mail Us Use the image ID Example: PO1.1023 It was in the early evening on that Friday night and I was at a friend’s house when we noticed that the sky had gotten very dark and the wind had increased dramatically. Soundings are ‘created’ by plotting the data reported by weather balloons that are launched by the NWS each day all across the country. I expected to meet a PSP helicopter but instead an Army or National Guard helicopter arrived. After graduating from PSU, I attended the University of Oklahoma for graduate school (1996-2000), where I studied tornadogenesis, and since 2001, I've been back at PSU as a professor now making a living studying tornado formation. The 4:33 PM radar observation indicated that two cells had fired in Ashtabula County, OH, just west of Erie County, PA. A few days after the tornado outbreak a group of us toured a part of the path of the Moshannon tornado and the damage in Kane. Bill was in the Air Force reserve, and I had been a weather officer in the Air Force between my BS and MS degrees from Penn State. On May 31st, 1985 I was a wide eyed 14 year old boy living in Punxsutawney, PA.  At that time I was still trying to figure out what I wanted to do when I got out of High School and had to go to college. After we were back on the ground I learned that the Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania would be landing in Tionesta shortly and I was invited to meet him there. I had just been promoted to lead forecaster in March of 1985. LMK Warning Area As we were running back and forth between the teletype and radar rooms to the telephone to make calls to the radio stations we were dodging carpet cleaning equipment. PORTIONS OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN LAKE ERIE                                                After issuing the early Convective Outlook, I went home to bed. (BACK TO TOP), Beaver County Times - Collection of 30th Anniversary Articles, Cleveland Plain Dealer - 25th Anniversary, Pittsburgh Post Gazette - 20th Anniversary, Tornado Watch Number 211 by John G. Fuller, Published September 1st 1987 by William Morrow & Company, Youngstown Vindicator - Tornado Victims Remembered, Supplemental Presentation by Nick Sleptzoff, former Erie County EMA director, NWS Storm Prediction Center Weather Report Archive, NWS/NOAA Employees/Retirees Stephen Corfidi, Bob Davis, Bill Drazl, Thomas Dunham, Priscilla Farrar, Rihaan Gangat, Paul Head, Carolyn Kloth, Christopher Liscinsky, Bill Modzelewski, Paul Nieman, Rob Radzanowski, and Teresa Rossi for their recollections, images, and data, Tom Atkins, WJET/Fox 66 for images and video, Henry Margusity, Accuweather for video footage and images, Dr. Paul Markowski and Lee Grenci, Penn State University for images, information, and recollections, Curtis Bowley, Susan Lucas Kazenas, and Ed Kieser for their recollections, Elyse Hagner and William Gartner, NWS State College, PA. The 850mb level is about 5000 feet above the ground. This interactive map, which contains data from January 1950 to April 30, 2020, pinpoints where a cyclone touched down and traces its path of destruction. Office severe weather training presentation. Path length: It was an alarming yell, so I quickly ran to my window and yelled out to see if he was okay. I worked the evening shift at "SELS" (the Severe Local Storms Unit of the National Severe Storms Forecast Center, as the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) was known in those days) on Friday, 31 May 1985. Weather Radio The Allegheny National Forest experienced a large amount of valuable timber loss from these two tornadoes. Time:  2:49pm Frankly, all we had was a fax with very blurry pictures of perfect hook echoes and the latest severe weather statements and tornado warnings from the National Weather Service. BULLETIN--IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED                                                                             I used up my entire career severe tornado quota on my first severe weather shift as a lead forecaster. The strongest occurred early in the AM. With 11 dead in Trumbull County, this was Ohio’s deadliest tornado outbreak since the Xenia Tornado of 1974. Hazardous Weather Outlook Sorry, the location you searched for was not found. Evansville “They want you back in,” she shouted over the mower. Do you have a story to share? I worked at Weather Services Corporation  from 1980 until 1988 before starting my own business. Regional Weather Map I drove to Tionesta on Saturday morning to meet the helicopter. It's far from clear what I'd be doing right now had it not been for the 5/31/85 tornado outbreak (and also perhaps had we not learned about tornadoes in school just before the outbreak). Questions? During the rain and wind event it suddenly dawned on me that as State Representative, perhaps I had responsibilities and people might expect me to make sure that the state government agencies were doing all they could to assist people and communities. Along the right hand side is a list of many of the parameters calculated from the sounding data, including CAPE and LI, that are used to predict thunderstorm occurrence and potential strength. Tornado track of tornado outbreak on May 31, 1985 (NWS, 2019). They were there to get everything ready for the Penn State Department of Meteorology’s 50th Anniversary Celebration and Reunion just two weeks later. The question in our minds was: will the air mass heat enough to break the cap? From that day on, my career path began to move towards Meteorology. As mentioned earlier, wind shear, or more importantly wind shear of the right magnitude and direction, will cause thunderstorms to rotate, which is a precursor to tornado development. Advisory/Warning Criteria, Radar Gelber, B. References, Additional Links, and Acknowledgements This interactive map, which contains data from January 1950 to April 30, 2020, pinpoints where a cyclone touched down and traces its path of destruction. This two day series of Daily Weather Maps (courtesy NOAA/NWS) shows the eastward progression of the cold front; from near Chicago on Friday morning May 31st …. By the end of the evening, a total of forty-one tornadoes had occurred in the United States and Canada. 89 people were killed, 64 in Pennsylvania alone. This interactive map, which contains data from January 1950 to August 31, 2020, pinpoints where a cyclone touched down and traces its … They are a measure of the conditions (temperature, dewpoints, wind speed and direction) above the surface of the Earth. About the NWS Tornadoes in Texas in 1985. Jump to navigation Jump to search. It was rated F4, traveled more than 60 miles across rough terrain, and at times had a damage path width of around 2 miles. In this photo taken June 1, 1985, the Hummel Service Station was flattened by a tornado that tore through North Sewickley Township on May 31, … It wasn't until the following day when I surveyed the damage with Greg Forbes and others that I realized that I was probably within about a mile of the giant tornado. April 5, 1985 Counties: Jefferson IN F-scale: F2 Deaths: Injuries: Path width: Path length: Time: 3:25pm Noted discrepancies: NWS ranks this as an F2, Grazulis does not list it. All NOAA, Tornadoes   |   Personal Stories   |   Meteorology   |   References & Links. Please try another search. I turned around when a lightning bolt struck close to my car. Between this scan and the next one at 4:55 PM, the cells had strengthened rapidly. Compared with today, the radar data available to SELS' was rudimentary. F-scale:  F2 EMLs act as a ‘lid’ in the atmosphere, stopping convection from occurring unless the lid can be removed or sufficient lift is present. This region had never experienced such a large outbreak of tornadoes. Decision Support Page With the temperature staying in the 60s, it did not feel like a tornado day. ...I was a grad student at Penn State during the Moshannon tornado outbreak on 31 May 1985. The forecaster even analyzed a dryline (the bumpy blue line through the central Plains) on the 850mb map, showing the leading edge of the dry air. We were aware that thunderstorms already were occurring in Ontario as we arrived for work on the 31st, although I do not think we knew that they already had produced tornadoes. I heard that it felled so many trees that tremors were registered on the Penn State seismograph. An additional component to the magnitude of the thunderstorms on May 31st was the presence of a significant “elevated mixed layer” (EML) , a common supporting ingredient in severe weather across the northeastern U.S. (Banacos and Ekster). REFERENCE. At the Pittsburgh Office, the hours from 5 PM to 8 PM were consumed with issuing tornado warnings for monster storms in Mercer (F5 that went through Wheatland), Beaver (F3 through Big Beaver) and into southern Butler county. Then he threw on his shoes and went downstairs (which he never did) so I got up and followed him down. That tornado’s path of destruction stopped near Tidioute and we continued flying south following the Allegheny River back to the PSP barracks. On May 31, 1985, many Pennsylvania residents faced injury, property damage, and even death due to a huge tornado outbreak, the largest and most intense tornado outbreak ever to hit this area of the country. Path width: Counties:  Harrison IN Of these twenty-one, one was rated an F5, and six were rated F4’s. Current Observations and Forecast Graphics, References, Additional Links, and Acknowledgements, Newton Falls, OH (Produced by the Newton Falls HS 1985-1986 AV Class), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. I will never forget the evening of May 31, 1985 and the events that occurred that night and during the next several weeks as the area of northwestern Pennsylvania where I live experienced a severe outbreak of several deadly tornadoes. Questions? The larger the number, the more instability is present, with CAPE of 2800 J/Kg , measured Friday evening being a moderate to high value. My father always listened to the scanner at night and his room was across from mine. Bill and I were deeply into severe weather analysis with soundings, and Bill said look at this morning's sounding. During that time period I have gotten to see plenty of severe weather, both on radar and in person. May 31, 1985. A history of twisters: Tornadoes in Ohio 1985 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has been tracking tornadoes for decades. The 12Z soundings showed a strong cap with very unstable air above the cap. F-scale:  F2 The pastor of our church, Pastor Samuel Geer, was from Corry, PA and was very grateful that no one in his hometown was killed or injured. The visible satellite loop above shows the development and explosive growth of thunderstorms across southern Ontario, Ohio, western Pennsylvania and western New York on the afternoon of May 31, This two day series of Daily Weather Maps (courtesy NOAA/NWS) shows the eastward progression of the cold front; from near Chicago on Friday morning May 31, Precipitation looks like a hook on the radar returns; showing. Please select one of the following: PORTIONS OF THE NORTHERN PANHANDLE. Path width: Fort Knox Path width: F-scale: F0 April 5, 1985 Evansville SKYWARN. It took until 5 through Friday afternoon rush hour traffic to get back to the our office. Deaths: The storms were the result of high levels of atmospheric instability present in an environment favorable for tornadic thunderstorms, triggered by the passage of a strong late-spring cold front. I remember about 4:00-4:30 in the afternoon a few coming into the Penn State weather station to check on whether the anticipated severe weather outbreak had gotten going. Thinking that someone might need help, we circled over the area for several minutes trying to locate someone but were never able to find anyone. Markowski, Paul:  The Tornado Outbreak of May 31, 1985: Looking Back at One of Pennsylvania’s Deadliest Weather Events. However, I do have a very clear memory of the weather that day. Advisory/Warning Criteria, Radar Spotter Training April 5, 1985 Fort Campbell El Nino and La Nina Submit a Storm Report F-scale: F2 1-Stop Winter Forecast Hourly Observations Path width: SOUTHERN LAKE ONTARIO                                                   There was a great deal of damage north of Corry, but no one was seriously hurt. Notes: Storm Data puts this tornado at Kent. 1-Stop Winter Forecast Deaths: A tornado rated as F0 is the least damaging, while an F5 is the most damaging. Spotter Training The Penn State Campus Weather Service was on top of the outbreak. Every tree, some with trunk diameters over 3 feet, had been sheared off about 15 feet above the ground. My parents decided to take my sister and I to view the damage two days later to stop the incessant questioning from me, hoping it would sober me up. I was ecstatic when I got my acceptance letter from Penn State University. Path length: Indeed explosive development of storms started over northeast Ohio (not far from where I grew up) in the late afternoon. This flight was about an hour long and again the tornado’s path was easy to see from the air. Negative LI values generally indicate unstable atmosphere, positive indicate lesser instability. It appeared that one of the tornadoes had touched down north of Tionesta, crossed the Allegheny River, hit the German Hill area, then north of Marienville near the Abraxas Center, and travelled on toward Kane. Hourly Observations Natural Disaster Survey Report to the Administrator of NOAA. El Nino and La Nina At 8:17 PM the clocks in Kane stopped as an F4 tornado plowed through, missing the radio station by a block or two. On the evening of May 31st, 1985, a devastating and deadly tornado outbreak struck the Northeastern United States and Canada. The storms seemed to just explode in the matter of minutes and the radar returns were much stronger than any I had ever seen at that distance on the Penn State radar. Time:  3:28pm Tornado track of tornado outbreak on May 31, 1985 (NWS, 2019). The twister all but leveled the small town, leaving five dead and dozens injured. That was the day I found my calling. PORTIONS OF WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA                                                          This was the era of Weather Service Forecast Offices (WSFOs) and satellite Weather Service Offices (WSOs). This might have been the same tornado that struck north of Tionesta but I am not sure. Outreach At the time of the call, I did not know who Greg was, or that he had been one of the few PhD candidates of Dr Ted Fujita. One classic signature is called a “hook echo”. The true enormity of the 31 May event would not, however, become apparent to me until the following day when I awoke to radio news accounts from the devastated region. The basics on tornadoes are covered at this link and everything else including the F-scale, who developed it and what it is about. Not much really happened through the day. Fujita |?| - The Fujita Scale is used to assess the intensity and damage caused by a tornado. A deadly tornado hit the city of Barrie, Ont., on May 31, 1985. Silver Spring, MD. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration The vertical extent of the storm was astounding as it moved across. I was amazed at how that night produced the only F5 tornado to strike PA.  That statistic remains so even today. Counties:  Jefferson IN My last broadcast on WKZA was just before their sign off at 8:15 PM. As I left work that day, the air was thick and the skies milky. Path length: While flying over the Wilderness Area, someone in the helicopter thought they had seen someone flash a signal or wave something. I was fascinated by the power of the atmosphere. I wanted to travel to Marienville but all the roads were blocked by downed trees and the fireman advised that I should not attempt to get there. Deaths: We had been expecting a severe weather outbreak over parts of the Ohio Valley that day; a weaker disturbance preceding the one responsible for the 31 May event had caused two rounds of severe weather in the Kansas City the previous day; one of these sent softball-sized stones through the roof of a co-worker who lived just a mile or so north of where I did around dawn on the morning of the 30th. So in twenty minutes we went from no echoes on the radars to two tornadoes. PERSONS IN THESE AREAS SHOULD BE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR THREATENING WEATHER CONDITIONS AND LISTEN FOR LATER STATEMENTS AND POSSIBLE WARNINGS. 44 tornadoes were counted including 14 in Ontario, Canada. Never again will I be caught off-guard. I recall being fascinated by how the weather could be so interesting yet so deadly. Injuries:  0 There was no verification in Clarion, and the county Emergency Manager indicated that it was very dark but not even rain was falling. I stayed at the weather station – a good decision. I thanked him for the report and told him I would pass the information onto the Harrisburg WSO who had warning responsibility for Clinton. W. VA                                                From 1989 to 1993, I attended Penn State, focusing on a Degree in Meteorology. My Senior year in High School, when it came time to apply to colleges, I only applied to ones that offered Meteorology. The Rainy Day Fund was created in 1985 … W. VA, PORTIONS OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN LAKE ERIE, FROM 500 PM EDT UNTIL 1100 PM THIS FRIDAY, AND DAMAGING THUNDERSTORM WINDS ARE POSSIBLE, IN THESE AREAS. The F3 across Big Beaver and into Butler County touched down at about the exact same time as the F4 in Moshannon State Forest around 7:35 PM.

Reese's Peanut Butter Calories, Redmi Airdots Left Not Turning On, Brigham Ob Anesthesia Fellowship, Soggy Apple Strudel, Millennium L360 Ladder Stand, Clean And Clear Deep Cleansing Lotion, Aws Convert Mbr To Gpt, Tornadoes Of 1985, Lion House Layered Salad, Machine Design Notes Pdf,