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motivation and emotion psychology summary

The major theories of motivation can be grouped into three main categories: physiological, neurological, and cognitive. 108–115) 2. Finally, cognitive theories argue that thoughts and other mental activity play an essential role in forming emotions. [Stangor]Chapter 10, "Emotion… Retrieved July 24, 2014, from Passengers reported that the landing was like landing on a rough runway. Motivation to engage in a given behaviour can come from internal and/or external factors. When we are dieting, we may be more likely to have a big binge on a day when the scale says that we have met our prior day’s goals. Motivational science is a behavioral science that seeks to construct theories about what constitutes human motivation and how motivational processes work. (2009, June 9). Gavin’s grandfather Vern was not a strong swimmer, and though both were wearing life jackets, they would not have survived for long in the cold Pacific ocean waters 300 meters from shore. We’re turning back toward La Guardia.”, When the tower gave him the compass setting and runway for a possible landing, Sullenberger’s extensive experience allowed him to give a calm response: “I’m not sure if we can make any runway…Anything in New Jersey?”. Holism and Positive Psychology 367. However, there are cultural display rules which influence how often and under what circumstances various emotions can be expressed. Will 26. Summary: Emotions. Neurological theories propose that activity within the brain leads to emotional responses. The Schachter-Singer two-factor theory suggests that physiological arousal receives cognitive labels as a function of the relevant context and that these two factors together result in an emotional experience. Freud, S. (1922). 14.4 Evaluating Treatment and Prevention: What Works? Social Motivation Achievement Motivation Examines our desires to master complex tasks/knowledge and reach goals Some people have higher than others; Varies from activity to activity Extrinsic/Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivators rewards that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves; ex: grades, salary Intrinsic motivators The Surrey School District in British Columbia has incorporated “emotional regulation” into the curriculum (Wells, 2013). Motivational theories explain the "itch" or "drive" or "reason" behind our behaviors - voluntary and involuntary. The importance of this topic has made health psychology one of the fastest growing fields in psychology. Because they involve arousal, emotions and motivations are “hot” — they “charge,” “drive,” or “move” our behaviour. Theories of emotion explain how we experience and interpret emotion on a physiological, cognitive, and social level. CHAPTER 2 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 24. William James (1842–1910) was an important contributor to early research into motivation, and he is often referred to as the father of psychology in the United States. Detailed summary of Chapter 10: Emotion and Motivation in Michael Gazzanigas Pscyhological Science fifth edition. For a General Psychology class discussion of Motivation & Emotion & its effects on behavior. A., Nocera, C. C., & Gray, J. R. (2009). [K&R] Chapter 7, "Emotion and Motivation: Feeling and Striving" 2.1.1. Motivations are often considered in psychology in terms of drives, which are internal states that are activated when the physiological characteristics of the body are out of balance, and goals, which are desired end states that we strive to attain. Gavin explained that his knowledge of driving a dirt bike served him well: “I knew that clutch in meant drive.” Vern described the young boy as “tenacious” and calm throughout the event. Grand Theories 26. Multiple theories have been put forward regarding motivation. From Descartes on, theorists have offered lists of basic emotions, usually ending up with from six to eight. This review takes a historical perspective on concepts in the psychology of motivation and emotion, and surveys recent developments, debates and applications. Motivations are closely related to emotions. Emo­tions usually involve either approach or avoidance. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a model that shows the relationship among multiple motives that range from lower-level physiological needs to the very high level of self-actualization. The teachers help the children recognize what they need to do to make themselves calm and productive in class. As we will see, affect guides behaviour, helps us make decisions, and has a major impact on our mental and physical health. Motivation is intimately related to emotion. William Masters and Virginia Johnson observed individuals engaging in sexual behaviour in developing their concept of the sexual response cycle. Read the following before watching the lecture video. You will learn the different views on motivation, from those deemed instinctual, internal, and those viewed as external. Many psychologists believe that the link between motivation and emotion emerged from three reasons. He attributed his ability to overcome the pain of the cuts to adrenalin. Upon finding an old truck with keys in the ignition, and despite the high emotions he was experiencing, he then had the wherewithal to learn to drive on the spot and make it up a three-kilometer hill to get help. Eventually, the need or goal is satisfied (we eat), and the relevant behaviours are turned off. The ability to produce and recognize facial expressions of emotions seems to be universal regardless of cultural background. Elements of Emotional Experience Emotion – Involves A Subjective Conscious Experience (Cognitive), accompanied by Bodily Arousal (Physiological), and By Characteristic Overt Expressions (Behavioral). Self-Actualization 368. Emotions are subjective experiences that consist of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal. This chapter will discuss the various theories related to motivation and emotion. Philosophical Origins of Motivational Concepts 25. Posted May 11, 2012 Things that move us emotion­ally are things that motivate us as well. Figure 11.1: Sully Sullenberger by Ingrid Taylar ( used under CC BY 2.0 license (; Plane crash into Hudson River by Greg L., ( used under CC BY 2.0 license ( Captain Sullenberger was not just any pilot in a crisis, but a former U.S. Air Force fighter pilot with 40 years of flight experience. We lost thrust in both engines. Both of the engines on flight 1539 had shut down, and his options for a safe landing were limited. Wells, K. (2013). National Transportation Safety Board. This review discusses the history of motivation and emotion concepts in psychology and affective neuroscience, drawing on both animal studies and human studies, in order to gain a better perspective on recent concepts and debates. Motivation and Emotion Motivation: Motive: An emotion, desire, physiological need and or similar impulse that acts as an encouragement to action.Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. Retrieved from This chapter provides an in-depth analysis of motivation and emotion as they relate to the field of psychology. Sociocultural factors that emphasize thinness as a beauty ideal and a genetic predisposition contribute to the development of eating disorders in many young females, though eating disorders span ages and genders. Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. The volume of the hippocampus has been shown to be reduced in individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. Levin, A. Surprise, fear, anger, and sadness are some immediate emotions that people experienced in the aftermath of the April 15, 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes Emotion Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. Some called it “grace under pressure,” and others called it the “miracle on the Hudson.” But psychologists see it as the ultimate in emotion regulation — the ability to control and productively use one’s emotions. He was giving his grandfather words of encouragement as he pulled him to shore. Old debates over emotion have recently risen again. Sully kept flying the plane and alerted the control tower to the situation: “This is Cactus 1539…hit birds. The hypothalamus and structures of the limbic system are important in sexual behaviour and motivation. The James-Lange theory asserts that emotions arise as a function of physiological arousal. He calmly set the plane down on the water. Motivation, when seen in the real world, and when measured by science , becomes visible and detectable through behavior, level of engagement, neural activation, and psychophysiology. Within each topically organized chapter, which all begin with a concise overview statement and end with a personal summary, the author highlights material of special importance and concludes major sections with a summary. Toronto, ON: CTV National News. With such a vast amount of content related to motivation and emotion in psychology, it can be a challenge to help students apply their knowledge. Training had quickened his mental processes in assessing the threat, allowing him to maintain what tower operators later called an “eerie calm.” He knew the capabilities of his plane. 13.2 Anxiety and Dissociative Disorders: Fearing the World Around Us, 13.4 Schizophrenia: The Edge of Reality and Consciousness, 13.6 Somatoform, Factitious, and Sexual Disorders, Chapter 14. There is evidence to suggest that our motivation to engage in sexual behaviour and our ability to do so are related, but separate, processes. We experience these responses as arousal. Within each topically organized chapter, which all begins with a concise overview statement and ends with a personal summary, the author highlights material of special importance and concludes major sections with a summary. Positive Psychology 368. Introduction to Emotion and Motivation Emotions can change in an instant, especially in response to an unexpected event. Then we will consider how emotions influence our mental and physical health. The word motivation is derived from the Latin word meaning “to move.” Chapter 15. Holism 368. The crew kept the passengers calm as women, children, and then the rest of the passengers were evacuated onto the rescue boats that had quickly arrived. ... CHAPTER 15 GROWTH MOTIVATION AND POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 365. On June 27, 2014, 13-year-old Gavin England saved his grandfather from drowning when their prawning boat took on water and sank off the Saanich Peninsula on Vancouver Island (CTV, 2014). Defining Psychological Disorders. Introduction to Psychology - 1st Canadian Edition by Jennifer Walinga and Charles Stangor is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. The limbic system is the brain’s emotional circuit, which includes the amygdala and the hippocampus. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to … More biologically oriented theories deal with the ways that instincts and the need to maintain bodily homeostasis motivate behaviour. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Bandura postulated that our sense of self-efficacy motivates behaviours, and there are a number of theories that focus on a variety of social motives. Motivation and Emotion Psychology Activities. Motivation and Emotion: Evolutionary, physiological, developmental, and social perspectives – Denys A. DeCatanzaro (1999). However, there is more to motivation and emotion than this kind of relationship. A motivation is a driving force that initiates and directs behaviour. Automatic and flexible: The case of nonconscious goal pursuit. Social Cognition, 27(1), 20–36. [Sacks] Chapter 12, "A Matter of Identity" (pp. While often confused, sexual orientation and gender identity are related, but distinct, concepts. Whether it is the thrill of a roller-coaster ride that elicits an unexpected scream, the flush of embarrassment that follows a public mistake, or the horror of a potential plane crash that creates an exceptionally brilliant response in a pilot, emotions move our actions. Motivation and emotion are tightly related processes that share the experience of subjective feelings and engage similar processes and structures in the brain. Introduction to Psychology & Neuroscience, Dalhousie University Introduction to Psychology and Neuroscience Team, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Motivation Emotions and Motivations Emotions result from goal-directed self-regulation. For example, are emotions necessarily subjective feelings? Captain Sullenberger then calmly walked the aisle of the plane to be sure that everyone was out before joining the 150 other rescued survivors (Levin, 2009; National Transportation Safety Board, 2009). Emotion is Important “ If you can conceive of yourself… suddenly stripped of all the emotion with which our world now inspires you… no one portion of the universe would then have importance beyond another; and the whole character of its things and series of its events would be without significance, character, expression, or perspective.” James theorized that behavior was driven by a number of instincts, which aid survival ().From a biological perspective, an instinct is a species-specific pattern of behavior that is not learned. Key Takeaways: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality Various theories of motivation strive to explain why people behave in certain ways by exploring the roles of instincts, internal and external rewards, the desire to maintain a certain level of arousal, the drive to reduce uncomfortable states, and the urge to fulfill physiological and psychological needs. Gavin’s ability to abate panic, and recognize and regulate his emotions was central to his actions in this emergency situation. Do animals have emotions? A., & Zimerman, S. (2009). Lawrence, J. W., Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2002). He had served both as a flight instructor and the safety chairman for the Airline Pilots Association. Treating Psychological Disorders, 14.1 Reducing Disorder by Confronting It: Psychotherapy, 14.2 Reducing Disorder Biologically: Drug and Brain Therapy, 14.3 Reducing Disorder by Changing the Social Situation. 13.1 Psychological Disorder: What Makes a Behaviour Abnormal? The program ultimately places the motivation for behavioural control within the hands of the children. The Cannon-Bard theory maintains that emotional experience occurs simultaneous to and independent of physiological arousal. We often see motivation as something that stimulates a person to act and behave to achieve a desired goal, while emotion is the feelings that emerge from the motive or drive itself, from the actions caused by the motive and from the achievement or failure of the desired goal. Psychology 170 Sunita, a girl from a little known town, puts in 10-12 hours of hard work everyday in order to get through the various engineering entrance examinations. The body’s thermostat continues to check for homeostasis and is always ready to react to future needs. Motivation and Emotions Motivation Motivation involves thinking about why some things are done. In addition to more basic motivations such as hunger, a variety of other personal and social motivations can also be conceptualized in terms of drives or goals. And when we are lonely, the motivation to be around other people is aroused and we try to socialize. When the tower suggested a runway in New Jersey, Sullenberger calmly replied: “We’re unable. The stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine are released. Affect is an essential part of the study of psychology because it plays such an important role in everyday life. Introduction to Psychology – 1st Canadian Edition, Experience averts tragedy in Hudson landing, Excerpts of Flight 1549 cockpit communications. Instinct 26. When we become aroused, the sympathetic nervous system provides us with energy to respond to our environment. As the body works toward the desired end state, the thermostat continues to check whether or not the end state has been reached. We hope we will act with the same clear-headed tenacity in emergency situations, but the heroic response is not assured. The two fundamental components of affect are emotions and motivation. We begin this chapter by considering the role of affect on behaviour, discussing the most important psychological theories of emotions. Emotions normally serve an adaptive role: We care for infants because of the love we feel for them, we avoid making a left turn onto a crowded highway because we fear that a speeding truck may hit us, and we are particularly nice to Mandy because we are feeling guilty that we did not go to her party. Introduction to Psychology - 1st Canadian Edition, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Tone of voice and body language also serve as a means by which we communicate information about our emotional states. (2014). Studies, courses, subjects, and textbooks for your search: Press ... Summary - Chapter 12 social psychology 6. Increased amygdala activity is associated with learning to fear, and it is seen in individuals who are at risk for or suffering from mood disorders. The topic of this chapter is affect, defined as the experience of feeling or emotion. Some motivations are biological, such as the motivation for food, water, and sex. When the goal of studying for an exam is hindered because we take a day off from our schoolwork, we may work harder on our studying on the next day to move us toward our goal. 1. American pilot Captain”Sully” Sullenberger  (Figure 11.1, “Captain Sullenberger and His Plane on the Hudson River”) was 915 metres up in the air when the sudden loss of power in his airplane put his life, as well as the lives of 150 passengers and crew members, in his hands. Physiological theories suggest that responses within the body are responsible for emotions. The importance of this chapter is not only in helping you gain an understanding the principles of affect but also in helping you discover the important roles that affect plays in our everyday lives, and particularly in our mental and physical health. Behavioural and Molecular Genetics, Chapter 13. The children may be impacted by too much noise in the classroom, too little sleep, or too much junk food in their lunch. Morsella, E., Bargh, J. 84 Summary for Motivation and Emotion EM.1 Motivation Motivation to engage in a given behavior can come from internal and/or external factors. Subject: Social Science, Psychology Material Type: Module Level: Community College / Lower Division Provider: Rice University Tags: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Basolateral Complex, Body Language, BranchED SEL, Cannon-Bard, Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion, Central Nucleus, Cognitive-mediational Theory, Components of Emotion, Cultural Display Rule, Emotion, Emotional Expression, Facial … As predicted by basic theories of operant learning, motivations lead us to engage in particular behaviours because doing so makes us feel good. Experience averts tragedy in Hudson landing. USA Today. Velocity toward goal attainment in immediate experience as a determinant of affect. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 788–802. Introduction to Major Perspectives, 2.4 Humanist, Cognitive, and Evolutionary Psychology, 3.1 Psychologists Use the Scientific Method to Guide Their Research, 3.2 Psychologists Use Descriptive, Correlational, and Experimental Research Designs to Understand Behaviour, 3.3 You Can Be an Informed Consumer of Psychological Research, 4.1 The Neuron Is the Building Block of the Nervous System, 4.2 Our Brains Control Our Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviour, 4.3 Psychologists Study the Brain Using Many Different Methods, 4.4 Putting It All Together: The Nervous System and the Endocrine System, 5.1 We Experience Our World through Sensation, 5.5 Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Perception, 6.1 Sleeping and Dreaming Revitalize Us for Action, 6.2 Altering Consciousness with Psychoactive Drugs, 7.2 Infancy and Childhood: Exploring and Learning, 7.3 Adolescence: Developing Independence and Identity, 7.4 Early and Middle Adulthood: Building Effective Lives, 7.5 Late Adulthood: Aging, Retiring, and Bereavement, 8.1 Learning by Association: Classical Conditioning, 8.2 Changing Behaviour through Reinforcement and Punishment: Operant Conditioning, 8.4 Using the Principles of Learning to Understand Everyday Behaviour, 9.2 How We Remember: Cues to Improving Memory, 9.3 Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Memory and Cognition, 10.2 The Social, Cultural, and Political Aspects of Intelligence, 10.3 Communicating with Others: The Development and Use of Language, 11.3 Positive Emotions: The Power of Happiness, 11.4 Two Fundamental Human Motivations: Eating and Mating, 12.1 Personality and Behaviour: Approaches and Measurement, 12.3 Is Personality More Nature or More Nurture? Alfred Kinsey conducted large-scale survey research that demonstrated the incredible diversity of human sexuality. Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion ... Summary Review Questions Project Ideas Contents Emotion has taught mankind to reason. Hassin, R. R., Bargh, J. When a drive or goal is aroused—for instance, when we are hungry—the thermostat turns on and we start to behave in a way that attempts to reduce the drive or meet the goal (in this case to seek food).

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