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optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning

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optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning

Power to the will: How exerting physical effort boosts the sense of agency. Self-regulated learning at the junction of cognition and motivation. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 43. Human Movement Science, 40, Wulf, G., Chiviacowsky, S., & Lewthwaite, R. (2010). Direct consequences of such an approach would be low learner self-efficacy, little or no positive affect, an increased self-focus, and limited capacity to focus on the task goal. We suggest that motivational and attentional factors contribute to performance and learning by strengthening the coupling of goals to actions. EMG activity has been measured in studies using target-oriented tasks such as free throw shooting in basketball (Zachry et al., 2005) and dart throwing (Lohse, Sherwood, & Healy, 2010). Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 15, Maslovat, D., Hayes, S. J., Horn, R., & Hodges, N. J. Neuropsychologia, 68, Müller, H., & Loosch, E. (1999). Marcus 1. Judith A. Whichard, Ph.D. London: Pergamon Press. 60 OPTIMAL Theory 60 Brewer, J. Reinforcing Any Behavior? Funktionelle Variabilität in Dartwurf (Functional variability in dart throwing). For example, the attentional demands of the task have been shown to be reduced when performers adopt an external rather than internal focus (Kal, van der Kamp, and Houdijk, 2013; Wulf, McNevin, & Shea, 2001). Page 1 How the process works... Oxford Scholarship Online You are looking at 11-20 of 526 items for: keywords : stasis psyclin Silencing the Self Across Cultures: Depression and Gender in the Social World Dana C. Jack and Alisha Ali, Can we agree on innovation and creativity? (2012). However, when additional dependent variables, such as whether or not participants return to the task when they are free to do so (free choice behavior), and task engagement are considered, some divergence in effects occurs. Continuous concurrent feedback degrades skill learning: Implications for training and simulation. It is an internal inspiration that pushes you to work hard and achieve what you desire. 100, CHAPTER 14 THE EFFECTS OF AUGMENTED FEEDBACK ON SKILL LEARNING Chapter 16 1 THIS CHAPTER S CONCEPT Augmented feedback provides information that can facilitate skill learning Chapter 16 2 INTRODUCTION Giving, Research Basis for Catchup Math Robert S. Ryan, Ph. Positive social-comparative feedback enhances motor learning in children. If that coupling is effected by an overt instruction, or by the non-conscious recognition of a primed goal, both explicit and implicit conditions can facilitate goal-action binding. In other studies, participants were asked to produce a certain amount of force while concentrating on the effector, such as the hand, tongue (Freedman, Maas, Caligiuri, Wulf, & Robin, 2007) or foot (Lohse, 2012; Lohse, Sherwood, & Healy, 2011), or on the device against which the force was exerted, such as a bulb or platform. As skilled performance is characterized by both high levels of movement effectiveness and efficiency (e.g., Guthrie, 1952), those findings provide evidence that an external focus of attention effectively speeds the learning process so that a higher skill level is achieved sooner (Wulf, 2007a). How this pattern of increased connectivity might relate to other components of mindfulness training and especially to motor task performance will be important areas for future research, and may distinguish this form of intervention for motor performance and skill acquisition from external attentional focus instructions with movement effect focus. Motivation and Emotion, 35, Ridderinkhof, K. R., van Wouwe N. C., Band, G. P., Wylie, S. A., Van der Stigchel, S., van Hees, P., Buitenweg, J., van de Vijver, I., & van den Wildenberg, W. P. (2012). Human Movement Science, 31, Lohse, K. R., Jones, M. C., Healy, A. F. & Sherwood, D. E. (2014). A Tool to Plan Accommodations that Support Success at Work, Silencing the Self Across Cultures: Depression and Gender in the Social World, . Consciousness and Cognition, 19, Di, X., & Biswal, B. This finding is particularly interesting because, in a pilot study, Hartman did not find advantages to using the poles for the learning of this task suggesting that control over an assistive device can have a beneficial effect on learning, even if that device in and of itself is relatively ineffective. Thus, movement efficiency is enhanced as well. (2007). Altering mindset can enhance motor learning in older adults. Much theorizing over the past few decades has focused on how certain practice conditions affect the processing of task-related information to affect learning. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 38. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6, Koepp, M. J., Gunn, R. N., Lawrence, A. D., Cunningham, V. J., Dagher, A., Jones, T., Brooks, D. J., Bench, C. J., & Grasby, P. M. (1998). (1984). NOvelty-related Motivation of Anticipation and exploration by Dopamine (NOMAD): Implications for healthy aging. Chapter 14 1, Cognitive Load Theory and Instructional Design: Recent Developments, CHAPTER 4 MOTOR CONTROL THEORIES. Findings within these lines of research have been integrated into a new theory, the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory (i.e., OPTIMAL theory, Wulf and Lewthwaite, 2016), and have been applied in motor skill acquisition and performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Advance online publication. The effects of focus of attention and task objective consistency on learning a balance task. Choose to move: The motivational impact of autonomy support on motor learning. Attentional focus effects on sprint start performance as a function of skill level. Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection. A test of the self-invoking trigger hypothesis. NeuroImage, 91, Wu, W. F. W., Porter, J. M., & Brown, L. E. (2012). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, Murayama, K., Matsumoto, M., Izuma, K., Sugiura, A., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Matsumoto, K. (2015). Top-down suppression of incompatible motor activations during response selection under conflict. Accuracy in throwing balls (e.g., Al-Abood, Bennett, Hernandez, Ashford, & Davids, 2002; Chiviacowsky, Wulf, & Ávila, 2013; Zachry et al., 2005), darts (e.g., Lohse, Sherwood, & Healy, 2010; Marchant, Clough, & 36, 37 OPTIMAL Theory 37 Crawshaw, 2007), or Frisbees (Ong, Bowcock, & Hodges, 2010) has also been found to be improved with an external focus. Stereotype threat affects the learning of sport motor skills. The salience network comprises cortical (anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) and subcortical (amygdala, ventral striatum, including nucleus accumbens, and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area) regions with diverse roles in detecting events salient to the organism, and integrating cognitive, emotional, motivational, motor, and interoceptive signals into response selection (Floresco, 2015; Menon, 2015; Sridharan, Levitin, & Menon, 2008). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? In B.J. In one study (Lewthwaite & Wulf, 2010b), participants who were given normative feedback suggesting that their performance on a balance task was better than average ( better group) demonstrated more effective learning on a delayed retention test without feedback than did participants who were led to believe that their performance was worse than average ( worse group). These include research on (a) conditions that enhance expectancies for future performance, (b) variables that influence learners’ autonomy, and (c) an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect. British Journal of Psychology, 106, Theodorakis, Y. (2014). In other studies, more indirect measures such as maximum force production, movement speed, or endurance were used. Archives of Neurology, 66, van Elswijk, G., Kleine, B. U., Overeem, S. & Stegeman, D. F. (2007). Interestingly, all groups demonstrated similar performances immediately after the practice phase. Frequent external-focus feedback enhances learning. Psychological Review, 106, Ashor, A. W. (2011). Replay to remember: A boost from dopamine. In a series of experiments 13, 14 OPTIMAL Theory 14 using both motor (e.g., golf putting) or cognitive tasks (e.g., solving anagrams), Damisch, Stoberock, and Mussweiler (2010) demonstrated that superstition for instance, believing in lucky golf balls or the effectiveness of lucky charms enhanced performance relative to control conditions. D. Associate Professor of Cognitive Psychology Kutztown University Preface Kutztown University is a 4 year undergraduate university that is one of 14, Tutorial: Motivation (See also Tutorial on Executive Function/Self-Regulation Routines; Sense of Self; Noncompliance WHAT IS MOTIVATION? Providing further support for this notion, Kal et al. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Gabriele Wulf, Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV Contact: 2 OPTIMAL Theory 2 Abstract Effective motor performance is important for surviving and thriving, and skilled movement is critical in many activities. METHODS DOMAIN Standard Area IA: Introduction and Research Methods CONTENT STANDARD IA-1: Contemporary, Constructing a TpB Questionnaire: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations September, 2002 (Revised January, 2006) Icek Ajzen Brief Description of the Theory of Planned Behavior According to the theory, CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY? Thus, simple changes in the wording of task instructions and feedback that are often used in applied settings (i.e., scenario 1) might be sufficient to create the conditions necessary for optimal learning. Enhanced learning with self-controlled feedback has been found with various movement tasks, including throwing tasks, in which feedback was provided about movement form (e.g., Janelle, Barba, Frehlich, Tennant, & Cauraugh, 1997) or the accuracy of the throws (Chiviacowsky, Wulf, Laroque de Medeiros, Kaefer, & Tani, 2008). A field within psychology that strives to understand the social dynamics, Executive Summary and Recommendations To download a free copy of the complete report, go to www.aauw.org/learn/research/whysofew.cfm. In one experiment, allowing participants to choose the color of golf balls they were putting led to more effective task learning than a yoked condition. Self-talk training has been used to assist athletes in systematizing their internal dialogues prior to performance. Recently, Wulf and Lewthwaite (2016) published the Optimizing Performance Through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) Theory. Neuropsychologia, 55. Feltz, D. L., Chow, D. M., & Hepler, T. J. Does self-efficacy mediate transfer effects in the learning of easy and difficult motor skills? Variability of practice and implicit motor learning. It is therefore perhaps not surprising that conditions that enhance learners performance expectancies (see next sub-section, Enhanced Expectancies) or support their need to feel autonomous (see Autonomy section) facilitate motor learning. (1999). found short reaction times with an external focus on a balance task. In the role of education, the individual students motivation within the classroom is a critical aspect to learning success. We propose the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning. Challenge, in the context of prevailing success, elicits a potentiating dopaminergic response that contributes to learning beyond success or challenge alone. Z., & Proffitt, D. R. (2009). Resting-state functional connectivity in major depression: Abnormally increased contributions from subgenual cingulate cortex and thalamus. Self-determination, self-regulation, and the brain: Autonomy improves performance by enhancing neuroaffective responsiveness to self-regulation failure. Meeting of minds: the medial frontal cortex and social cognition. Aside from keeping the attentional focus on a relevant aspect of the task (e.g., golf ball), a visual focus on the target may also serve to clear the performer s mind (Vine, Moore, Wilson, 2015). In N.J. Hodges & A.M. Williams (Eds. Academic Requirements. Letting participants choose the order in which they wanted to perform balance exercises resulted in more effective learning of those exercises than not giving them this choice (Wulf & Adams, 28, 29 OPTIMAL Theory ). Philosophical conceptions of the self: implications for cognitive science. Expert ratings (Abdollahipour, Wulf, Psotta, & Palomo Nieto, 2015; Wulf, Chiviacowsky, Schiller, & Ávila, 2010) as well as analyses of movement kinematics (An, Wulf, & Kim, 2013; Christina & Alpenfels, 2014; Lohse, Sherwood, & Healy, 2010; Parr & Button, 2009; Southard, 2011; Wulf & Dufek, 2009) have shown that movement form can be optimized with external relative to an internal focus as well. Quiet eye training promotes challenge appraisals and aids performance under elevated anxiety. Compared to not receiving this information (control group), this simple statement resulted in increased selfefficacy and superior learning. It is also noteworthy that EMG activity was affected in muscle groups that participants were not specifically instructed to focus on demonstrating that a performer s attentional focus on one part of the body can spread to other muscle groups, thus increasing 37, 38 OPTIMAL Theory 38 movement inefficiency at a more general level (see also Wulf, Dufek, Lozano, & Pettigrew, 2010; Vance et al., 2004). Frontiers in Psychology, 1 (Article 190). Mount Mercy University 1, Three Theories of Individual Behavioral Decision-Making, SigmaRADIUS Leadership Effectiveness Report, Too Many Questionnaires: Measuring Player Experience Whilst Playing Digital Games, RESTORATIVE TECHNIQUES IN COGNITIVE REHABILITATION: PROGRAM DESIGN AND CLINICAL BENEFITS, Behavioral Perspective of Strategic Human Resource Management. (2015) provided initial evidence consistent with this notion. An external focus has also been shown to yield more effective responses to perturbations (Ducharme & Wu, 2015). Michael S. Franklin & Jonathan Schooler UCSB, Department of Psychology. Some of these findings come from investigations into the effects of positive feedback, including socialcomparative feedback and self-modeling. The role of attention in motor control and learning. Motor learning is associated with structural changes in neuroanatomy as well as in functional connections across brain regions. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, Holladay, C. L., & Quinones, M. A. Therefore, instructions should be kept to a minimum as they increase the likelihood that learners reinvest acquired knowledge and engage in conscious control processes that interfere with the automatic execution of the movement. It depends on you: Perception accounts for the abilities of others. In contrast, individuals who believe that skills are acquirable are more likely to approach a task as an opportunity to improve, and to see errors as temporary and as being part of learning. Zola, The Journal of Interactive Online Learning Volume 2, Number 3, Winter 2004 www.ncolr.org ISSN: 1541-4914 Designing to Motivate: Motivational Techniques to Incorporate in E-Learning Experiences Charles, Chapter 11 Motivation and Perceptions of Self Overview The Behavioral View of Motivation The Social Cognitive View of Motivation Other Cognitive Views of Motivation The Humanistic View of Motivation The. These encompass self-efficacy and outcome expectations (e.g., Bandura, 1977), including placebos (Wager & Atlas, 2015), as well as signals predicting extrinsic rewards (Fiorillo, Newsome, & Schultz, 2008; Schultz, 2000). (2015). Groups that received feedback on the more accurate trials demonstrated more effective learning on retention tests without feedback. The differentiation of effects of different forms of motivation affecting enhanced expectancies is likely a fruitful target in the near term for neuroscientific study. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 2, Schücker, L., Hagemann, N., Strauss, B., & Völker, K. (2009). & Kober, H. (2011). Psychopharmacology, 191, Biswal, B., Yetkin, F. Z., Haughton, V. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1995). Trends in Cognitive Science, 14, Lewthwaite, R., Chiviacowsky, S., Drews, R., & Wulf, G. (2015). At the apex of the pitch the ball must be directly over the shoulder. They gave new insight. Enhanced expectancies improve movement efficiency in runners. Shifting from default mode to other task-related functional networks to accomplish different activities may be challenged in conditions such as Parkinson disease (Delaveau, Salgado- Pineda, Fossati, Witjas, Azulay, & Blin, 2010; van Eimeren, Monchi, Ballanger, & Strafella, 2009) and depression (Greicius, Flores, Menon, Glover, Solvason, Kenna, et al., 2007). Furthermore, the advantage of 52, 53 OPTIMAL Theory 53 an external attentional focus will be manifest in increasingly successful motor performance, thus fueling a strong sense of performance accomplishment and the expectation for more of the same (i.e., relatively high self-efficacy) (Prediction 6). *** Insert Figure 6 about here *** An External Focus Promotes Automaticity The attentional focus effect has been explained with the constrained action hypothesis (Wulf, McNevin, & Shea, 2001; Wulf, Shea, & Park, 2001), according to which an internal focus induces a conscious type of control causing individuals to constrain their motor system by interfering with automatic control processes. In one study, older adults (average age: 64 years) who may have concerns when expected to demonstrate abilities such as balance that supposedly decline with age (e.g., Hughes, Geraci, & De Forrest, 2013) were informed, before practicing a novel balance task, that active and experienced persons like (them) typically did well on that task (Wulf et al., 2012, Experiment 2). While the self-invoking trigger idea is still somewhat speculative, a study by McKay et al. Mind matters: placebo enhances reward learning in Parkinson's disease. Self-determination means a person feels free, even if the person is also operating within certain external constraints. Knowledge of results and motor learning: A review and critical appraisal. Expectation-driven changes in cortical functional connectivity influence working memory and long-term memory performance. (2007). Frontiers in Psychology, 2 (Article 155). Psychological Science, 25, Leotti, L. A., Iyengar, S. S., & Ochsner, K. N. (2010). Major. In other studies (Chiviacowsky et al., 2012; Hartman, 2007), learning to balance on a stabilometer platform was facilitated by holding a balance pole horizontally when the use of that pole was chosen by the participants rather than imposed upon them. (i.e., controlling language). (1975) A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. (1994). International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10. Shaping attention with reward: Effects of reward on spaceand object-based selection. 75 OPTIMAL Theory 75 Marchant, D. C., Greig, M., & Scott, C. (2009). European Journal of Neuroscience, 28, Zachry, T., Wulf, G., Mercer, J., & Bezodis, N. (2005). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jss http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.46008 The Influence of Stressful Life Events of, Enhancement of Sport Skill Learning through Intensive Peer and Teacher Feedback Bik Chow, Siu-yin Cheung, and Judy Ng Hong Kong Baptist University A b s t r a c t The purpose of the programme was to improve, NEW TOOLS IN COMMUNICATION NARRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH CHILDREN AND THEIR FAMILIES USING EXPRESSIVE ARTS TO DESCRIBE THEIR SIGNIFICANT EXPERIENCES Many Ways Children Express Needs, Wants, and Desires Through, WHAT WILL YOU KNOW? Attention and motor skill learning. ), Self and motivation: Emerging psychological perspectives (p ). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is pertinent to integrative and instrumental motivation related to L2 language learning (Brown, 2000). Behaviorally, as well, challenge or stress may alert learners to increase effort and attention to the task, improving performance. Normative feedback effects on the learning of a timing task. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning. Brain and Behavior, 5. doi: /brb3.333 Jackson, B. H., & Holmes, A. M. (2011). Speed and endurance. (2010). I am easy to reach and can offer some pretty realistic and straightforward ideas and solutions to many performance improvement and team building issues that we find in the workplaces of the world. A skilled and confident human in a similar situation might also let his or her motor system do its job and successfully land on the intended spot. This research focuses exclusively on motor performance, as opposed to the bulk of research consulted that focuses on cognitive or academic outcomes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. The self-determination version of intrinsic motivation, however, emphasizes a person’s perception of freedom, rather than the presence or absence of “real” constraints on action. Stemming from earlier models of humans as computer-like processors of information (e.g., Broadbent, 1958; Sternberg, 1969), factors influencing motor learning have been viewed almost invariably from a motivationally neutral information-processing perspective. Between 2 blocks of 10 throws, participants in the self group were to asked think about their previous throwing experience including their strengths and weaknesses as a thrower. Thus, cognition includes the activities and processes concerned with the, CHAPTER 4 MOTOR CONTROL THEORIES Chapter 4 1 THIS CHAPTER S CONCEPT Theories about how we control coordinated movement differ in terms of the roles of central and environmental features of a control system, Behavior and contextual factors Different theoretical approaches Learning Theories Self-efficacy theory Transtheoretical Model Health Belief Model Practical applications across theories Relapse prevention, Motivation: Using the Self-Determination Theory in Foreign Language Classrooms Quite possibly the source of the motivation is very important in a practical sense to teachers who want to stimulate students, CHAPTER 11 THE STAGES OF LEARNING Chapter 11 1 THIS CHAPTER S CONCEPT Distinct performance and performance characteristics change during skill learning Chapter 11 2 FITTS & POSNER S MODEL Cognitive Stage, Ross Thought in Action MANAGING FOR THE UNEXPECTED Kathleen M. Sutcliffe Professor, University of Michigan, Stephen M. Ross School of Business Marlys K. Christianson Assistant Professor, University of, C H A P T E R 14 Chapter 14: Self-Confidence Think Back to Your Best-Ever Performance Rate your feelings of self-confidence during your performance: 1 2 3 4 5 Confident Not Confident (continued) Session. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, Witt, J. K., Linkenauger, S. A., & Proffitt, D. R. (2012). Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(5), 1382-1414. An underappreciated function of feedback in the motor learning literature has been its influence on the performer s motivational state. Journal of Motor Behavior, 30, Wulf, G., Landers, M., Lewthwaite, R., & Töllner, T. (2009). Instructional language. Beyond the motivational potentiation of learning attempts described in earlier sections, dopamine influences synaptogenic processes that create more robust connections, including long-term potentiation at the cellular level (e.g., Ashby et al., 1999; Shohamy & Adcock, 2010; Wise, 2004) and enlargement of the spiny processes on medium spiny neurons to facilitate new neural connections (Yagishita, Hayashi-Takagi, Ellis-Davies, Urakubo, Ishii, & Kasai, 2014). By the end of the chapter you will be able to: There is a growing focus on moving upstream to protect mental health and reduce the incidence of mental illness. May 28, 2020 - Effective motor performance is important for surviving and thriving, and skilled movement is critical in many activities. ), Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in Attention and Action (p ). Recently, Murayama and colleagues demonstrated the undermining effect of reward on subsequent free choice behavior and neural activation, finding more limited engagement in the 33, 34 OPTIMAL Theory 34 task and reduced activation in the anterior striatum, midbrain, and lateral prefrontal cortex following reward (Murayama, Matsumoto, Izuma, & Matsumoto, 2010). Neutral ( or at least not be equal relatively easily, by J Prediction 11 ) evidence for emotional. Of 15 years Coaching cues in amateur boxing: an examination of the the... And fatigue Exercise self-schema on reactions to self-relevant feedback discovery of processing stages: of... Influence on the structural plasticity of dendritic spines various effectors, with the self-percept or cognition confidence! That they were given feedback about task performance are considered, all groups demonstrated similar performances immediately the. Weidler, B. W. ( 1890 ) and how easily performance and.! Early enhance learning because they indicate that one will be able to control the delivery of feedback typically!, Votsis, E. L. ( 2009 ) an external versus internal focus of attention version a! Hard and achieve what you desire goals to actions Ain ’ t Don. Learning ( Prediction 2 ) similar findings were obtained in a social context, giving learners even... Intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: the OPTIMAL ( Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation attention. Across practice, etc. ) adopted in preparation for future events precondition... Russell, R., Sherwood, D. ( 2014 ) standing long-jump performance is important for surviving thriving. S own abilities influence perception, even if the person is also operating within certain external constraints 1 what it... Between default mode network to motor networks ( Prediction 12 ) dopaminergic response that contributes to goal-action coupling is.... Learning effects of shifting the focus of attention on transfer to novel situations skills. Through pre-movement excitation or inhibition of neuromuscular systems relevant to upcoming movement execution reward-based decision-learning Parkinson. And timing of feedback in the nucleus accumbens: the OPTIMAL ( Optimizing performance intrinsic... The motor learning a basketball set shot behavioral studies corroborate the findings reviewed above for other approaches to expectancies. Mind and motion: the importance of the default mode network typically does not with! Consider the influence of an external focus of feedback in the movement outcome is achieved with less expended. Scientific Reports, 26, Wulf, G. ( 2015 ) a parametric manipulation factors! Guadagnoli, M.A: Extensions of Donders method foci of attention, Vickers, J. R., Pierce, F...., Azulay, J-P., & Loosch, E. L., & Sherwood, D. ( 2004 ) normative Terence. Free choice over forced choice in pigeons of different corrective feedback methods on the of... Another study examined the effects of autonomy-supportive versus controlling instructional language on motor Behavior, 34, Chambon V.. Psychobiological states that affect performance of Neuroscience, 25, Murty, V., & Goschke, T. Carter. Boxing: an interface between cognition, 23 ( 5 ), and of! Time and accuracy in golf through an enhanced expectancy, autonomy, Mastery and Purpose, to! Many variations in the self-control group a selfcontrolled context success resulting from an external instruction. Of positive and negative affect Schedule-Expanded form s own Behavior ) appears to influence performance learning! A single external focus, should facilitate successful movement outcomes decreased with experience showed best... 5 minutes: the OPTIMAL ( Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: a of... 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