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fourth largest planet

Mars has two moons. [272] The average time between the successive oppositions of Mars, its synodic period, is 780 days; but the number of days between the dates of successive oppositions can range from 764 to 812.[273]. The red-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by iron(III) oxide, or rust. This, combined with a dry surface and an atmosphere primarily composed of carbon dioxide means that Venus is rather ill-equipped to host life. The duration of this retrograde motion is about 72 days. During the mid-22nd century, Vulcan science used the term Minshara-class for such planets. For the deity, see. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere [211][212][213], In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land on Earth may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits (often found around hot springs and geysers) uncovered in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The planet is 1,424,600,000 kilometers away from the Sun. Methane could be produced by non-biological process such as serpentinization involving water, carbon dioxide, and the mineral olivine, which is known to be common on Mars. Sign. [40] A permafrost mantle stretches from the pole to latitudes of about 60°. It is also the third closest planet to the Sun. Most often this requires the orbit of a planet to lie within the habitable zone, which for the Sun extends from just beyond Venus to about the semi-major axis of Mars. Research in 2008 has presented evidence regarding a theory proposed in 1980 postulating that, four billion years ago, the northern hemisphere of Mars was struck by an object one-tenth to two-thirds the size of Earth's Moon. 373-393, 10 January 1971. The distance at close approach varies between about 54 and 103 million km (34 and 64 million mi) due to the planets' elliptical orbits, which causes comparable variation in angular size. Challenge your brain solving the 7 words by figuring out what the clues point to and combine the letters to form the correct words. Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. [193] Mars's cycle of eccentricity is 96,000 Earth years compared to Earth's cycle of 100,000 years. Uranus is the third largest planet with a diameter of 51,118 km. In 1994, the European Space Agency's Mars Express found an ultraviolet glow coming from "magnetic umbrellas" in the southern hemisphere. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury. As Mars approaches opposition it begins a period of retrograde motion, which makes it appear to move backwards in a looping motion relative to the background stars. Mars is located closer to the asteroid belt, so it has an increased chance of being struck by materials from that source. At its most favorable times — at 15-year or 17-year intervals, and always between late July and late September — a lot of surface detail can be seen with a telescope. [60][61], Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen, metals, and other elements that typically make up rock. [58] This iron(II) sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements as Earth's. Mars is nearly, or perhaps totally, geologically dead; the end of volcanic activity has apparently stopped the recycling of chemicals and minerals between the surface and interior of the planet. Its atmosphere has three layers, the first layer is composed mostly of ammonia ice, and the second layer is made of water ice, while a mixture of hydrogen and sulfur makes up most of the third layer. Saturn is mostly made of hydrogen. [79], The Phoenix lander returned data showing Martian soil to be slightly alkaline and containing elements such as magnesium, sodium, potassium and chlorine. It sits 1.5 km (0.9 mi) below the surface at the base of the southern polar ice cap and is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) wide. [235], On 24 September 2014, Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), reached Mars orbit. [30], There are investigations assessing the past habitability of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. The lengths of the Martian seasons are about twice those of Earth's because Mars's greater distance from the Sun leads to the Martian year being about two Earth years long. ", Mars Trek – An integrated map browser of maps and datasets for Mars, Interactive 3D Gravity simulation of the Martian system and all the operational spacecraft in orbit around it as of the 12'th of June 2020, Mars rover captures high-resolution panorama of its home, Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey, Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C), Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM), List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mars&oldid=991311796, Astronomical objects known since antiquity, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:49. Their low albedo and carbonaceous chondrite composition have been regarded as similar to asteroids, supporting the capture theory. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.94, which is surpassed only by Venus, the Moon and the Sun. However, in the 1990s Pluto was demoted to the status of a dwarf planet rather than a true planet. The resulting mean surface pressure is only 0.6% of that of Earth 101.3 kPa (14.69 psi). [149] Zero altitude was defined by the height at which there is 610.5 Pa (6.105 mbar) of atmospheric pressure. Jupiter appears to have white, yellow, thick red and brown clouds. These seasonal actions transport large amounts of dust and water vapor, giving rise to Earth-like frost and large cirrus clouds. Many other observations and proclamations by notable personalities added to what has been termed "Mars Fever". [275] The first person to draw a map of Mars that displayed any terrain features was the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens. [246] [49] From this come technical terms such as areology, as well as the adjective Arean[50] and the star name Antares. Jupiter has three faint rings composed of dust particles which result from the impact of comets and asteroids. [281], In the fourth century BCE, Aristotle noted that Mars disappeared behind the Moon during an occultation, indicating that the planet was farther away. [203], A 2014 analysis of the Phoenix WCL showed that the Ca(ClO4)2 in the Phoenix soil has not interacted with liquid water of any form, perhaps for as long as 600 million years. [133] (This compares to a volume of 2.85 million cubic kilometres (1.01×1017 cu ft) for the Greenland ice sheet.) In late December 2014, NASA's MAVEN spacecraft detected evidence of widespread auroras in Mars's northern hemisphere and descended to approximately 20–30° North latitude of Mars's equator. Recent evidence has suggested that any water on the Martian surface may have been too salty and acidic to support regular terrestrial life. These maps notably contained features he called canali, which were later shown to be an optical illusion. The unstable orbit of Phobos would seem to point towards a relatively recent capture. This permanent dry ice cover at the south pole is peppered by flat floored, shallow, roughly circular pits, which repeat imaging shows are expanding by meters per year; this suggests that the permanent CO2 cover over the south pole water ice is degrading over time. It takes Uranus 17.24 Earth days to spin on its axis. [194] Mars has a much longer cycle of eccentricity, with a period of 2.2 million Earth years, and this overshadows the 96,000-year cycle in the eccentricity graphs. Influential works included Ray Bradbury's The Martian Chronicles, in which human explorers accidentally destroy a Martian civilization, Edgar Rice Burroughs' Barsoom series, C. S. Lewis' novel Out of the Silent Planet (1938),[313] and a number of Robert A. Heinlein stories before the mid-sixties. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior. ISRO launched MOM on 5 November 2013, with the aim of analyzing the Martian atmosphere and topography. [156] The largest confirmed of these is the Hellas impact basin, a light albedo feature clearly visible from Earth. [clarification needed] For the last 35,000 years, the orbit of Mars has been getting slightly more eccentric because of the gravitational effects of the other planets. The summer temperatures in the south can be warmer than the equivalent summer temperatures in the north by up to 30 °C (54 °F). Neptune is the fourth largest planet out of the eight in our solar system, after Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Astrobiology missions are planned, including the Perseverance and Rosalind Franklin rovers. [59] The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but it appears to be dormant. [98], Along crater and canyon walls, there are thousands of features that appear similar to terrestrial gullies. It has a diameter of 12,756 km. Detailed scenarios for the metabolism and chemical cycles for a functional ecosystem have been published. These particles are thought to be results of asteroids, moons, and comets breaking apart in Saturn’s vicinity. The comparatively large eccentricity of the Martian orbit has a significant effect. [16], Mars has a relatively pronounced orbital eccentricity of about 0.09; of the seven other planets in the Solar System, only Mercury has a larger orbital eccentricity. SpaceX founder Elon Musk presented a plan in September 2016 to, optimistically, launch a crewed mission to Mars in 2024 at an estimated development cost of US$10 billion, but this mission is not expected to take place before 2027. The tests could even have killed a (hypothetical) life form. "Dena" is the only exception; its floor is visible and was measured to be 130 metres (430 ft) deep. [101][102] No partially degraded gullies have formed by weathering and no superimposed impact craters have been observed, indicating that these are young features, possibly still active. It is the fifth planet from the sun. Thus, only highly refractory and/or well-protected (sub-surface) organics or life forms are likely to survive. In 2012, it was proposed that Valles Marineris is not just a graben, but a plate boundary where 150 kilometres (93 mi) of transverse motion has occurred, making Mars a planet with possibly a two-tectonic plate arrangement. Which planet is the fourth largest planet in the solar system? The concentration of methane fluctuates from about 0.24 ppb during the northern winter to about 0.65 ppb during the summer. [94][95] One of the larger examples, Ma'adim Vallis is 700 kilometres (430 mi) long, much greater than the Grand Canyon, with a width of 20 kilometres (12 mi) and a depth of 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) in places. [289] When the telescope became available, the diurnal parallax of Mars was again measured in an effort to determine the Sun-Earth distance. Earth is the only planet in the universe that harbors life - at least as far as we know. [93], Landforms visible on Mars strongly suggest that liquid water has existed on the planet's surface. His term, which means "channels" or "grooves", was popularly mistranslated in English as "canals". Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Express continued exploring with new instruments, and supporting lander missions. At one point, 1.35 million Earth years ago, Mars had an eccentricity of roughly 0.002, much less than that of Earth today. [195], The current understanding of planetary habitability — the ability of a world to develop environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life — favors planets that have liquid water on their surface. It is one of the five planets visible from Earth using only the naked-eye (the others are Mercury, Venus, Mars and Jupiter). The Athabasca Valles is home to sheet-like lava flows created about 200 Mya. Parts of the southern highlands include detectable amounts of high-calcium pyroxenes. Mars has many distinctive chemical features caused by its position in the Solar System. [78] On 19 February 2008, images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showed evidence of an avalanche from a 700-metre-high (2,300 ft) cliff. [206], Small quantities of methane and formaldehyde detected by Mars orbiters are both claimed to be possible evidence for life, as these chemical compounds would quickly break down in the Martian atmosphere. The southern polar cap has a diameter of 350 kilometres (220 mi) and a thickness of 3 kilometres (1.9 mi). Neptune is the fourth largest and the farthest planet of the Solar System with the most powerful wind speeds out of all the planets. Water flows in the grabens called the Cerberus Fossae occurred less than 20 Mya, indicating equally recent volcanic intrusions. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. He published several books on Mars and life on the planet, which had a great influence on the public. It also has Rings. [214][215], In early 2018, media reports speculated that certain rock features at a site called Jura looked like a type of fossil, but project scientists say the formations likely resulted from a geological process at the bottom of an ancient drying lakebed, and are related to mineral veins in the area similar to gypsum crystals. Although it has been suspected that life on Mars may have at one point been possible, scientists have not discovered any evidence of this. Mars is near perihelion when it is summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the north, and near aphelion when it is winter in the southern hemisphere and summer in the north. It was the first planet discovered with a telescope and has the coldest atomosphere in the solar system. Mars is the fourth planet from the sun, and also the second smallest planet. The only spacecraft ever to visit Neptune was the Voyager 2 in 1989. [238], In May 2018, NASA's InSight lander was launched, along with the twin MarCO CubeSats that flew by Mars and acted as telemetry relays during the landing. The streaks can start in a tiny area, then spread out for hundreds of metres. Change between km / mi in settings; Use the buttons at the top to sort the planets by their order from the Sun or by their size. [35][36][37] The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water. [28] In January 2004, the Mars Exploration Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, both landed on Mars. Neptune is denser and physically smaller than Uranus because its greater mass causes more gravitational compression of its atmosphere. When least favorably positioned, it can be lost in the Sun's glare for months at a time. [257], On 19 October 2014, comet Siding Spring passed extremely close to Mars, so close that the coma may have enveloped Mars. [181], Impact glass, formed by the impact of meteors, which on Earth can preserve signs of life, has been found on the surface of the impact craters on Mars. Most of Venus is covered with lava. [267], As Mars approaches opposition, it begins a period of retrograde motion, which means it will appear to move backwards in a looping motion with respect to the background stars. [229], Mars may have moons smaller than 50 to 100 metres (160 to 330 ft) in diameter, and a dust ring is predicted to exist between Phobos and Deimos.[23]. [222] Both satellites were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall; they are named after the characters Phobos (panic/fear) and Deimos (terror/dread), who, in Greek mythology, accompanied their father Ares, god of war, into battle. It has rings and an absolutely hysterical name. [63] Much of the surface is deeply covered by finely grained iron(III) oxide dust. [255][256] Transits of Mercury and Venus have been observed from Mars. [80] Experiments performed by the lander showed that the Martian soil has a basic pH of 7.7, and contains 0.6% of the salt perchlorate. Even more notable are the perihelic oppositions of Mars, which occur every 15 or 17 years and are distinguished because Mars is close to perihelion, making it even closer to Earth. [109][110] It is estimated that the amount of water in the upper mantle of Mars, represented by hydroxyl ions contained within the minerals of Mars's geology, is equal to or greater than that of Earth at 50–300 parts per million of water, which is enough to cover the entire planet to a depth of 200–1,000 metres (660–3,280 ft). Mars lost its magnetosphere 4 billion years ago,[168] possibly because of numerous asteroid strikes,[169] so the solar wind interacts directly with the Martian ionosphere, lowering the atmospheric density by stripping away atoms from the outer layer. [199], In situ investigations have been performed on Mars by the Viking landers, Spirit and Opportunity rovers, Phoenix lander, and Curiosity rover. Evidence suggests that the planet was once significantly more habitable than it is today, but whether living organisms ever existed there remains unknown. As of 2018[update], Mars is host to eight functioning spacecraft: six in orbit — 2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MAVEN, Mars Orbiter Mission and ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter — and two on the surface — Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity (rover) and InSight (lander). The amount of Martian deuterium is eight times the amount that exists on Earth, suggesting that ancient Mars had significantly higher levels of water. It is so gigantic that all other planets in the solar system could fit into Jupiter. This finding was derived from the ratio of water to deuterium in the modern Martian atmosphere compared to that ratio on Earth. https://sciencetrends.com/great-planets-order-size-distance-sun The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature. [26] On 4 July 1997, the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft landed on Mars and on 5 July released its rover, Sojourner, the first robotic rover to operate on Mars. Uranus is a gas giant with the coldest atmosphere in the solar system. Neptune is the fourth largest planet in our Solar System and it is the smallest of the giant gas planets. Mars has a very thin atmosphere with very small traces of oxygen. Which planet is the fourth largest planet in the solar system? [314], Jonathan Swift made reference to the moons of Mars, about 150 years before their actual discovery by Asaph Hall, detailing reasonably accurate descriptions of their orbits, in the 19th chapter of his novel Gulliver's Travels. [124] The crater floor lies about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) below the rim, and is covered by a 1.8 kilometres (1.1 mi) deep central mound of permanent water ice, up to 60 kilometres (37 mi) in diameter. These clouds move around the planet at high speeds in the opposite direction as the planet spin on its axis. [293][294], Influenced by the observations, the orientalist Percival Lowell founded an observatory which had 30 and 45 centimetres (12 and 18 in) telescopes. It rotates on its axis every 10 hours and 34 minutes and orbits around the sun in 29.4 Earth years. [310], Early in December 1900, we received from Lowell Observatory in Arizona a telegram that a shaft of light had been seen to project from Mars (the Lowell observatory makes a specialty of Mars) lasting seventy minutes. [302] These maps are available online; for example, at Google Mars. Jupiter’s mass is more than 300 times that of Earth, and its diameter, at 140,000 km, is about 11 times Earth’s diameter. For mapping purposes, the United States Geological Survey divides the surface of Mars into thirty cartographic quadrangles, each named for a classical albedo feature it contains. [243], NASA launched the Mars 2020 mission on 30 July 2020. For example, Nix Olympica (the snows of Olympus) has become Olympus Mons (Mount Olympus). [316], After the Mariner and Viking spacecraft had returned pictures of Mars as it really is, an apparently lifeless and canal-less world, these ideas about Mars had to be abandoned, and a vogue for accurate, realist depictions of human colonies on Mars developed, the best known of which may be Kim Stanley Robinson's Mars trilogy. This was first performed by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1672. As bigger telescopes were used, fewer long, straight canali were observed. This leads to geyser-like eruptions of CO2 gas mixed with dark basaltic sand or dust. [55] It can look like butterscotch;[56] other common surface colors include golden, brown, tan, and greenish, depending on the minerals present.[56]. [40] In November 2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of underground ice in the Utopia Planitia region. [136][137], The seasonal frosting of areas near the southern ice cap results in the formation of transparent 1-metre-thick slabs of dry ice above the ground. (ENT: "Strange New World") In 2151, Starfleet officers were not familiar with the term and Enterprise chose to adopt it. NASA's InSight Lander Feels Its 1st Red Planet Tremor", "NASA news: 'Unexpected and surprising' Mars mission discovery shocks scientists | Science | News | Express.co.uk", "NASA's MAVEN probe shows how wind circulates in Mars' upper atmosphere", "NASA, ESA Officials Outline Latest Mars Sample Return Plans", "Second ExoMars mission moves to next launch opportunity in 2020", "UAE to explore Mars' atmosphere with probe named 'Hope, "Elon Musk's Plan: Get Humans to Mars, and Beyond", "Barack Obama: America will take the giant leap to Mars", "Obama Gives New Details About Sending People to Mars", "US Government Issues NASA Demand, 'Get Humans to Mars By 2033, "Martian Moons Block Sun in Unique Eclipse Images From Another Planet", "All Three NASA Mars Orbiters Healthy After Comet Flyby", "Spacecraft in great shape – our mission continues", "I'm safe and sound, tweets MOM after comet sighting", "Fiercest meteor shower on record to hit Mars via comet", "Appendix 1: Oppositions of Mars, 1901–2035", Astropro 3000-year Sun-Mars Opposition Tables, "NightSky Friday—Mars and Earth: The Top 10 Close Passes Since 3000 B.C. [159], The shield volcano Olympus Mons (Mount Olympus) is an extinct volcano in the vast upland region Tharsis, which contains several other large volcanoes. It is known that in the past, Mars has had a much more circular orbit. [207][208] Alternatively, these compounds may instead be replenished by volcanic or other geological means, such as serpentinite. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System (in adherence with the IAU's controversial 2006 definition of planet), being larger than only Mercury. The opposition of 13 July 2065 will be followed by one on 2 October 2067. alternating bands found on Earth's ocean floors, flat floored, shallow, roughly circular pits, Exploration of Mars § Timeline of Mars exploration, Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System, "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter", JPL Horizons for Mars (mb=499) and Observer Location: @Sun, "Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006", "Kilometer-resolution gravity field of Mars: MGM2011", "Interior Structure and Seasonal Mass Redistribution of Mars from Radio Tracking of Mars Pathfinder", "What is the typical temperature on Mars? It is easily visible to the naked eye and is the sixth planet from the sun. In Europe, it is stated that I have been in communication with Mars, and all sorts of exaggerations have spring up. The paler plains covered with dust and sand rich in reddish iron oxides were once thought of as Martian "continents" and given names like Arabia Terra (land of Arabia) or Amazonis Planitia (Amazonian plain). Features of these valleys and their distribution strongly imply that they were carved by runoff resulting from precipitation in early Mars history. The duration of this retrograde motion lasts for about 72 days, and Mars reaches its peak luminosity in the middle of this motion. [187] The planet is 1.52 times as far from the Sun as Earth, resulting in just 43% of the amount of sunlight. [142], Today, features on Mars are named from a variety of sources. Mars's equator is defined by its rotation, but the location of its Prime Meridian was specified, as was Earth's (at Greenwich), by choice of an arbitrary point; Mädler and Beer selected a line for their first maps of Mars in 1830. Mars is scarred by a number of impact craters: a total of 43,000 craters with a diameter of 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) or greater have been found. The streaks are dark at first and get lighter with age. [107] In 2004, Opportunity detected the mineral jarosite. Its name was derived from the Roman king of gods. It has a very large core which contributes to this density. Comparatively speaking, Mercury is a mysterious planet. These nutrients are found in soils on Earth, and they are necessary for growth of plants. [188], If Mars had an Earth-like orbit, its seasons would be similar to Earth's because its axial tilt is similar to Earth's. [111], In 2005, radar data revealed the presence of large quantities of water ice at the poles[90] and at mid-latitudes. [104], Further evidence that liquid water once existed on the surface of Mars comes from the detection of specific minerals such as hematite and goethite, both of which sometimes form in the presence of water. The early parallax measurements were hampered by the quality of the instruments. ", "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Spotlight", "Cataclysmic impact created north-south divide on Mars", "Beyond Earth: A Chronicle of Deep Space Exploration", "NASA to Share Results of Effort to Recover Mars Opportunity Rover", "Mars Orbiter Mission Completes 1000 Days in Orbit - ISRO", "Mars mystery: ExoMars mission to finally resolve question of life on red planet", "Life on Mars? [158] In spite of this, there are far fewer craters on Mars compared with the Moon, because the atmosphere of Mars provides protection against small meteors and surface modifying processes have erased some craters. Uranus orbits around the Sun in 84 Earth years. Though the volume of the largest planet is 1400 times of earth, its mass is only 318 times. Neptune was discovered in 1846 by Johann Galle. By Benjamin Elisha Sawe on August 16 2018 in World Facts. The planet revolves around the sun once in a period of 11.86 Earth years. It's very fun to play but fairly challenging at the same time. In the present day epoch, the orientation of the north pole of Mars is close to the star Deneb. Rather than giving names to the various markings, Beer and Mädler simply designated them with letters; Meridian Bay (Sinus Meridiani) was thus feature "a". [304], The fashionable idea that Mars was populated by intelligent Martians exploded in the late 19th century. [241][242], In 2019, MAVEN spacecraft mapped high-altitude global wind patterns at Mars for the first time. [171] The highest atmospheric density on Mars is equal to that found 35 kilometres (22 mi)[172] above Earth's surface. [64][65], Although Mars has no evidence of a structured global magnetic field,[67] observations show that parts of the planet's crust have been magnetized, suggesting that alternating polarity reversals of its dipole field have occurred in the past. The Earth is technically a sphere. In about 50 million years, it could either crash into Mars's surface or break up into a ring structure around the planet.[226]. I wired these facts to Europe and sent out neostyle copies through this country. Martian surface temperatures vary from lows of about −143 °C (−225 °F) at the winter polar caps[14] to highs of up to 35 °C (95 °F) in equatorial summer. Deimos, being only just outside synchronous orbit – where the orbital period would match the planet's period of rotation – rises as expected in the east but slowly. 76, No. The European Space Agency will launch the ExoMars rover and surface platform sometime between August and October 2022. NASA's Spirit rover has taken pictures of a greenish-brown, mud-colored landscape with blue-grey rocks and patches of light red sand. Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images Whether it had intelligence or not, no one can say. The origin of the two moons is not well understood. Mars made its closest approach to Earth and maximum apparent brightness in nearly 60,000 years, 55,758,006 km (0.37271925 AU; 34,646,419 mi), magnitude −2.88, on 27 August 2003, at 09:51:13 UTC. You can also zoom in and out on the planets or the Sun using the plus and minus buttons. [81][82][83][84] This is a very high concentration and makes the Martian soil toxic (see also Martian soil toxicity).

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